IPR stands for Intellectual Property Rights. To understand about Intellectual Property Rights, it is important to understand about the Intellectual Property (IP). Intellectual Property refers to the property which has both moral and commercial value and that comes out from the human intellect that may be a creation of human minds, inventions, copyrights on musical, literary, dramatic, artistic works and symbols, names, images used in commerce.
Basically, Intellectual Property (IP) is divided into two categories:-
- Industrial Property:-
Industrial Property again can be divided into two areas;
- One area can be distinctive signs for Trademarks (TM) that distinguish the goods or services of one enterprise or undertaking from those of other enterprises or undertakings.Geographical Indications (GI) that identify a good originating in a place where a given characteristics of the good is essentially attributable to its geographical origin.
- Other areas include Patents, Industrial Designs (IDs), Trade Secrets (TS) for innovation, design and the creation of technology.
- Copyrights and Rights related to Copyrights deals with;
- Authors’ Literary works (e.g. novels, poems, plays, writings and books), Artistic works (e.g. paintings, sculptures, drawings and photographs), films, computer programs, musical compositions and architectural designs.
- Neighboring Rights include rights of performers (e.g. actors, singers and musicians), broadcasting organizations in their radio and television programs, and producers of phonograms in their recordings.
Intellectual Property Rights (IPR)
Deals with the legal rights granted to protect the creation of the intellect. These rights are same as of other property right. Rights allow creator or owner to get benefits by exploiting their creation.
IPR provides an exclusive right for the limited period of time to the individuals, enterprises and other entities to exclude others from unauthorized use, copy, sell, distribution or license.
Further Intellectual Property Rights are outlined in Article 27 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which talk about the right to benefit from the protection of moral and material interests resulting from authorship of scientific, literary or artistic productions.
The Importance of Intellectual Property (IP) was first recognized in the Paris Convention for the protection of Industrial Property in year 1883 and the Berne Convention for the protection of Literary and Artistic Works in year 1886. Both treaties are administered by World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO).
Types of Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) are:-
- Industrial Indications
- Trade Secrets
- Industrial Designs
- Confidential Information
- Layout- designs of integrated circuits